Tag Archives: Guardian

Mapping Phineas Gage’s Brain (150+ Years Later)

The Guardian‘s Science Section has a fascinating piece on a recent attempt by researchers to reconstruct the damage done to Phineas Gage’s brain, who famously survived an 1848 accident in which a tamping iron was shot through his head. As the article describes, research on the damage done to Gage’s brain is part of the larger Human Connectome Project that aims to map all the connections in the human brain.

But how does one reconstruct the connectome of someone who died more than 150 years ago, and whose brain no longer even exists? Van Horn and his colleagues used high-resolution CT scans of Gage’s skull, from a 2004 study that digitally reconstructed the trajectory of the iron rod as it passed through his brain, and examined the data again to re-estimate its path as accurately as possible.

They then selected structural MRI and DTI data from 110 healthy people from the LONI Image Data Archive. All of these data came from men aged between 25 (Gage’s age at the time of his accident) and 36 (the age at which he died). The researchers combined these data to produce a generalized map of the long-range connections in the human brain, and used computational modelling to project the passage of the tamping iron onto it.

The computation model of the passage of the tamping iron through Gage’s brain is shown in the video above. While this model shows severe, widespread damage to Gage’s brain, it has been known for a number of years that there is little evidence in the historical record of the purported profound personality changes Gage experienced post-accident. Ultimately, what this kind of research tells us about Gage’s experience after the accident is unclear. (Find out more about Gage’s accident and his life afterward in an interview with Gage’s biographer Malcolm Macmillan on the This Week in the History of Psychology Podcast series.)

Read the full Guardian article online here and the original PLoS ONE article whose research is described in the Guardian piece here.

Guardian Science Book Club

The Science Book Club of United Kingdom newspaper the Guardian, is currently discussing Stephen Jay Gould’s volume, The Mismeasure of Man. Gould’s book, published in 1981 and revised in 1996 in response to Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray’s The Bell Curve, looks at the history of intelligence research and race. Tim Radford, in his article for the GaurdianRace and Intelligence: A Sorry Tale of Shoddy Science, asserts that, “What Gould’s book reminds us over and over again is that even very clever, generous and thoughtful people who are raised with a set of ingrained assumptions are likely to find evidence to support those assumptions.” Those wishing to follow the Guardian‘s discussion on The Mismeasure of Man can do so here.