Tag Archives: digital history

New Article: “Scientometric Trend Analyses of Publications on the History of Psychology”

Günter Krampen

A new open access article forthcoming in the journal Scientometrics looking at publication trends in the history of psychology may be of interest to AHP readers. Full details below.

“Scientometric trend analyses of publications on the history of psychology: Is psychology becoming an unhistorical science?,” by Günter Krampen. The abstract reads,

Examines scientometrically the trends in and the recent situation of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology in the German-speaking countries and compares the findings with the situation in other countries (mainly the United States) by means of the psychology databases PSYNDEX and PsycINFO. Declines of publications on the history of psychology are described scientometrically for both research communities since the 1990s. Some impulses are suggested for the future of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology. These include (1) the necessity and significance of an intensified use of quantitative, unobtrusive scientometric methods in historiography in times of digital “big data”, (2) the necessity and possibilities to integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies in historical research and teaching, (3) the reasonableness of interdisciplinary cooperation of specialist historians, scientometricians, and psychologists, (4) the meaningfulness and necessity to explore, investigate, and teach more intensively the past and the problem history of psychology as well as the understanding of the subject matter of psychology in its historical development in cultural contexts. The outlook on the future of such a more up-to-date research on and teaching of the history of psychology is—with some caution—positive.

The full article can be accessed online here.

Historiography in the Social History of Medicine: Records at the NIH and the UK Web Archive

3.coverThe latest issue of Social History of Medicine includes two pieces related to historiographic research methods that may be of interest to our readership.

In light of (and as case against) the downsizing of the Office of History at the American National Institutes of Health and the prevailing uncertainty about its future capacity to be of service to historians, David Cantor has taken it upon himself to provide a guide to the available records, those beyond the collections held at the National Library of Medicine, the National Archives and in private possession, “those squirreled away in the NIH itself, in filing cabinets, on servers and computer systems, and within the records management system, many of which are uncatalogued and can be tricky to find.”

It also outlines how to best approach the bureaucratic system for viewing available records. Upon the dismantling of their historical office, historians will be left to navigate the complexities and social politics of finding and accessing materials at the Institutes without guidance, and as such the insights provided by this short work will likely prove invaluable.

The abstract can be found here: Finding Historical Records at the National Institutes of Health.

Martin Gorsky, out of the Centre for History in Public Health (Faculty of Public Health and Policy), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, provides another methodological guide. His work employs a case study (on the recent decentralization of public health services in Britain) to introduce the search engine interface of the UK Web Archive (colloquially called the Dark Domain Archive) and discuss the opportunities it provides, the challenges posed by its current functionality, and its relation to the future of historiography at large. The analyses conducted were both quantitative and qualitative, and analytic processes include thematic analysis, discourse analysis, and analyses of the selected sites as visual artifacts.

The full article can be found open access here: Into the Dark Domain: The UK Web Archive as a Source for the Contemporary History of Public Health.

 

Networking the Early Years of the American Journal of Psychology

The most recent issue of the American Journal of Psychology includes an article exploring the journal’s earliest years of publication. In “The Evolution of The American Journal of Psychology 1, 1887– 1903: A Network InvestigationChristopher Green and Ingo Feinerer use the methods of the digital humanities to network the journal’s content. The abstract reads,

The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) was the first academic journal in the united states dedicated to the “new” scientific form of the discipline. But where did the journal’s founding owner/editor, G. Stanley Hall, find the “psychologists” he needed to fill the pages of such a venture 1887, when he was still virtually the only professor of psychology in the country? To investigate this question we used the substantive vocabularies of every full article published in AJP’s first 14 volumes to generate networks of verbally similar articles. These networks reveal the variety of research communities that hall drew on to launch and support the journal. three separate networks, corresponding to 3 successive time blocks, show how hall’s constellation of participating research communities changed over AJP’s first 17 years. Many of these communities started with rather nebulous boundaries but soon began to differentiate into groups of more distinct specialties. some topics declined over time, but new ones regularly appeared to replace them. We sketch a quasievolutionary model to describe the intellectual ecology of AJP’s early years.

New Issue of HoP Fresh off the Press!

hop-150The May 2015 issue of History of Psychology (vol 18, issue 2) is now available (find online here), and is chock-full of interesting content. From analyses exploring the materiality of psychological and psychiatric instruments (including the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, the ‘Utica Crib,’ and the controversial transorbital ice pick lobotomy instrument introduced by Walter Freeman), to historiographic discussions (about how to further internationalize the practice of the history of psychology in North America, and about the necessity of attention to multiple temporalities and contexts within the history of psychology in Brazil), there’s a little something for everyone.

The abstracts read as follows:

Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.
By: Young, Jacy L.
Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists’ often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship.

Continue reading New Issue of HoP Fresh off the Press!

Cheiron Workshop: “Archives, Repositories, Websites, Blogs, Exhibits, Oh My! Digitization Considerations and Conceptualizations”

The 47th Annual Meeting of Cheiron, the International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences, just wrapped up at the University of Kansas. On the final day of the meeting we presented the workshop “Archives, Repositories, Websites, Blogs, Exhibits, Oh My! Digitization Considerations and Conceptualizations.” The workshop drew on our joint experiences with three different web-based history of psychology projects:

Logo_Full_HighPsychology’s Feminist Voices, a Multimedia Digital Archive,

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Remembering Oak Ridge, a Digital Archive and Exhibit,

AHP

and this blog, Advances in the History of Psychology.

This post is an extension of that presentation, where we discussed some of the many considerations associated with digital projects. These kinds of projects – be they blogs, exhibits, archives, podcasts, etc. – straddle the boundaries of traditional historical scholarship and the burgeoning field of digital humanities. They can provide valuable material for researchers, act as resources for educators and students, or comprise a complete research project in their own right. Some projects even manage to serve all these roles.

There are, of course, more issues related to digital projects than we could ever hope to address in a 50 minute conference workshop or even a slightly-expanded blog post. Our aim, however, was to provide those interested in undertaking digital projects with some of the tools and resources needed for success – and, given the digital focus of the discussion, it seemed only natural to share this content online as well.

To help guide our discussion, we proposed a fictitious example: a forthcoming digital project on Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiments. Below are 8 talking points from the workshop and associated issues, as well as our accompanying Prezi presentation. A list of resources, slightly expanded from the handout circulated to our audience members, is also provided below.

If you have any questions or resources of your own to share, please leave us a comment!

Archives, Repositories, Websites, Blogs, Exhibits, Oh My!
Digitization Considerations and Conceptualizations

 

1. What kind of project are you undertaking? Continue reading Cheiron Workshop: “Archives, Repositories, Websites, Blogs, Exhibits, Oh My! Digitization Considerations and Conceptualizations”

Women’s History Month @ Psychology’s Feminist Voices!

Marlowe_Most Wanted

Our sister site Feminist Voices is celebrating Women’s History Month with a-post-a-day on their social media!

 Connect with their facebook & twitter accounts to take part in the fun:

 

 

 

  • do some historical sleuthing into the lives of PFV’s “Most Wanted,” and learn more about little-known women psychologists
  • get insiders’ perspectives, from the humourous to the profound, throughout the history of psychology; play “who’s that face?” with collections of unidentified photos, and much more!

Attneave_Facebook

 

Women’s History Month is all about rectifying the gender bias that has traditionally plagued historical scholarship, and thanks to PFV’s great work at York we can help construct a more accurate history by illuminating the crucial roles that women have always played in psychology!

New Issue of HoP: Baldwin & the Baltimore Bordello, Digital History, & Einfühlung (Empathy)

The November 2013 issue of History of Psychology is now online. Included in this issue is an article on the sex scandal that led James Mark Baldwin (right) to resign from Johns Hopkins University in 1909. Written by longtime Baldwin scholar Robert Wozniak (along with Jorge Santiago-Blay), the piece describes in detail the circumstances surrounding Baldwin’s arrest in a Baltimore bordello. The issue also includes a digital exploration of the contents of G. Stanley Hall’s American Journal of Psychology and Pedagogical Seminary (by AHP bloggers Jacy Young and Christopher Green), a piece documenting the conceptual history of Einfühlung (or empathy),  and an article on the research possibilities of the Society for the History of Psychology’s History of Psychology Newsletter. Full titles, authors, and abstracts follow below.

“Trouble at Tyson Alley: James Mark Baldwin’s arrest in a Baltimore bordello,” by Robert H. Wozniak and Jorge A. Santiago-Blay. The abstract reads,

In June 1908, James Mark Baldwin, then Professor of Psychology and Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University and at the pinnacle of his career, was arrested in a Baltimore house of prostitution. Although he insisted on both his legal and moral innocence and all legal charges against him were dismissed, the threat of scandal led Hopkins authorities to demand Baldwin’s resignation and Baldwin to remove himself and his family permanently to France. While this is one of the most notorious events in the early history of American psychology, almost nothing has been known about the incident itself, because both Baldwin and Hopkins took great pains to keep these details private. Based on court records, contemporary newspaper accounts, and archival materials in the Presidential Records at Hopkins and elsewhere, it is now possible to reconstruct the events of 1908 and their aftermath in detail. This article describes these occurrences; places them in the context of Baldwin’s life, personality, and career; presents newly obtained information on the immediate consequences of the arrest, including circumstances leading to Baldwin’s forced resignation; and describes the long-term impact of Baldwin’s removal from the United States. Although no definitive conclusion with regard to Baldwin’s guilt or innocence can be reached, we conclude by contrasting the treatment received at the hands of his colleagues in psychology with the lifelong support received from his wife and family, and suggest that Baldwin may have been the victim of a premature rush to judgment.

“An exploratory digital analysis of the early years of G. Stanley Hall’s American Journal of Psychology and Pedagogical Seminary,” by Jacy L. Young and Christopher D. Green. The abstract reads, Continue reading New Issue of HoP: Baldwin & the Baltimore Bordello, Digital History, & Einfühlung (Empathy)

New Issue: JHBS

Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences is now online. Included in this issue are a number of new articles that range from the difficulty in classifying postpartum depression, the mental hygiene in socialist Mexico, and even a digital analysis of the Psychological Review. Full titles, authors, and abstracts follow below.

“A Tricky Object to Classify: Evidence, Postpartum Depression and the DSM-IV,” by Rebecca Godderis. The abstract reads:

The concept of evidence has become central in Western healthcare systems; however, few investigations have studied how the shift toward specific definitions of evidence actually occurred in practice. This paper examines a historical case in psychiatry where the debate about how to define evidence was of central importance to nosological decision making. During the fourth revision of the Diagnostic andStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders a controversial decision was made to exclude postpartum depression (PPD) as a distinct disorder from the manual. On the basis of archival and interview data, I argue that the fundamental issues driving this decision were related to questions about what constituted suitable hierarchies of evidence and appropriate definitions of evidence. Further, although potentially buttressed by the evidence-based medicine movement, this shift toward a reliance on particular kinds of empirical evidence occurred when the dominant paradigm in American psychiatry changed from a psychodynamic approach to a research-based medical model.

Continue reading New Issue: JHBS

Digital history position at Harvard

It’s true: there’s a job opening at Harvard!

Harvard University is seeking a “Preceptor” in digital history.

We are looking for a promising scholar to implement a vision for digital history in the department and beyond. The preceptor will be responsible for offering support and instruction in digital history and for coordinating departmental initiatives in digital research and pedagogy.

The affiliation would be with the Department of History, but they are also accepting applications from PhDs in allied areas (specialization open). The challenge comes on the digital side:

Experience in aspects of the digital humanities relevant to historians, for example, the use of large data sources, database creation and management, data visualization, digital mapping, text mining and mark-up, and experience in using and developing digital tools and platforms in the teaching, research, and presentation of history…. A strong doctoral record is preferred, and knowledge of programming is a plus.

The deadline for applications is 1 March 2013. It is a 1-year, limited-term, non-tenure-track position.