APA Historical Chronology of Psychology’s Contributions to the Belief in Racial Hierarchy and Perpetuation of Inequality for People of Color in U.S.

To accompany its historic October 29th “Apology to People of Color for APA’s Role in Promoting, Perpetuating, and Failing to Challenge Racism, Racial Discrimination, and Human Hierarchy in U.S.” the American Psychological Association has produced a historical chronology of “how psychology and APA have harmed people of color since the formal institutionalization of U.S. psychology in the late 1800s.” This chronology, as the Overview and Approach notes,

…was conducted by a writing group and a working group with psychologists from across the country. The writing group is comprised of Cummings Center staff and faculty, including three historians of psychology and an archives assistant with a background in American history and archival theory and practice. We have relied on primary and secondary sources in the history of psychology and related human sciences.

The writing group has relied on feedback from and discussion with a working group comprised of seven academics, including historians of psychology and psychologists with long and valuable experience with the field and its historical and present relationship with people of color. This working group represents many communities of color and has lived and studied psychology’s history in relation to race, culture, ethnicity, class, and social and political issues. They have worked to create, preserve, and advance psychologies that emanate from, attend to, and serve communities of color.

The following review begins with a summary of our findings, followed by a chronology representing the historical data used to inform those findings. It is important to note that silences—moments when the field could have spoken or acted on behalf of communities of color but failed to do so—were difficult to demonstrate with historical actions, particularly in a timeline format. We fully acknowledge that silences, omissions, and failures to act are underrepresented in this account.

It is also important to note that the data in the chronology are necessarily incomplete. It is nearly impossible to document every instance of harm in one chronology. The historical data are comprised of examples of harm that we and other historians have deemed most salient and impactful based on our assessment of the extent to which they serve as exemplars of repeated and prominent trends in the field’s history and their degree of direct connection with organized psychology. We stress, however, that these specific harms are part of a larger problematic culture in psychology, rooted in oppressive and exclusionary psychological science and practice.

The full historical chronology can be found online here.

7th Annual Karl Stern Lecture in Religion and Psychoanalysis, Nov 19th

AHP readers may be interested in attending the 7th annual Karl Stern Lecture in Religion and Psychoanalysis, which will be held virtually on Zoom on Fri., Nov. 19 at 2 pm EST. This year’s lecture is by Prof. James Clark, Dean of the College of Social Work and will focus on the relationship between the Catholic radical journalist and activist Dorothy Day and the Harvard psychiatrist and public intellectual Robert Coles.

New Open Access Journal: History of Media Studies

AHP readers may be interested in the launch of a new open-access journal devoted to the history of media studies. The full journal announcement is below.

We are very pleased to announce the launch of a new international journal, History of Media Studies, and the publication of 16 short, programmatic essays written by the editors and members of the editorial boardHistory of Media Studies (HMS) is an open access, refereed academic journal dedicated to scholarship on the history of research, education, and reflective knowledge about media and communication broadly conceived—as expressed through academic institutions; through commercial, governmental, and non-governmental organizations; and through “alter-traditions” of thought and practice often excluded from the academic mainstream. HMS aims to open space outside the commercialized academic publishing industry—space that is nonprofit, community-led, care-based, and transparent. The journal’s inaugural essays address the geopolitics of the history and historiography of the media and communication fields, structural inequities and exclusions that have helped constitute them, and alternative conceptualizations and methodologies for investigating them, among other topics. Read more about the journal.

Editors Introduction

Launch Essays

History of Media Studies is published by mediastudies.press, a non-profit, scholar-led OA publisher. The journal is affiliated with the Working Group on the History of Media Studies, the History of Media Studies Newsletter, and the History of Communication Research Bibliography. Receive updates on new articles through RSS

Questions? Contact us at hms@mediastudies.press

Psychology of eyewitness testimony in Germany in the 20th century

A new piece in History of Psychology will interest AHP readers: “Psychology of eyewitness testimony in Germany in the 20th century,” by Sporer, S. L., & Antonelli, M. Abstract:

The history of the psychology of eyewitness testimony cannot be adequately understood without taking the respective legal systems, that is inquisitorial versus adversarial system, into account. Across all periods, questions regarding the accuracy of testimony, its suggestibility, and intentional distortions in false accusations become apparent. We describe the history of the experimental psychology of testimony in Germany from the beginning of the 20th century until the time after the second world war. Louis William Stern and Otto Lipmann conceived and established a broad conception of Aussagepsychologie (psychology of report), attracting the collaboration of lawyers, pedagogues, and scholars from other disciplines to conduct laboratory and staged event experiments. They were successful in institutionalizing psychology and law by organizing interdisciplinary conferences, founding a journal, and testifying as experts in court. When appearing as experts, they encountered strong rivalry from psychiatrists. We also sketch some of the problems psychologists in Germany faced during the second world war. In our discussion, we stress the importance of legal, contextual, and sociocultural factors affecting both research outcomes and expert testimony, which appear to be parallel to present-day concerns.

The reception of psychodrama in Spain: Correspondence between Jacob Levy Moreno and Ramón Sarró

AHP readers will be interested in a new article in History of Psychology: “The reception of psychodrama in Spain: Correspondence between Jacob Levy Moreno and Ramón Sarró,” by Lévy, S., Huertas-Maestro, M., & Huertas, R. Abstract:

Jacob Levy Moreno, the well-known creator of psychodrama, had a close epistolary relationship with the Spanish psychiatrist Ramón Sarró; a collection of these letters has been located in the Sarró personal archive, deposited in the Library of Catalonia. After locating and arranging this correspondence, we proceeded to analyze and contextualize its contents. The analysis of this collection serves as a basis to outline the context in which the relationship between Moreno and Sarró developed, the role played by certain psychotherapy congresses in strengthening their relationships, and the process that resulted in the University of Barcelona awarding Moreno Doctor Honoris Causa. This study has allowed us to identify certain areas of how psychodrama was received in Spain during the 1960s and reflect on the creation of international collaboration networks and the creation of schools and professional and academic legitimation strategies in the wake of the approaches to group psychotherapy and psychodrama that Moreno developed while based in New York.

New History of Psychiatry: Shock Therapy in Spain, Mental Health Care for Children in the Netherlands, and More

The December 2021 issue of History of Psychiatry is now online. Full details below.

“From talking cure to play- and group-therapy: outpatient mental health care for children in the Netherlands c. 1945–70,” Nelleke Bakker. Open access. Abstract:

After World War II in the Netherlands, outpatient mental health care for children expanded greatly. The number of Child Guidance Clinics grew, and university child-psychiatric clinics and Youth Psychiatric Services were newly established. The leading diagnostic and treatment ideology was mainly Freudian and focused on psychotherapy. During the 1960s the Child Guidance Clinics were outstripped by the more innovative university clinics that introduced new kinds of treatment, such as play- and group-therapy. This ended the hegemony of psychiatrists, as child psychologists and psychiatric social workers replaced them as therapists. At the same time, psychologists of the two denominational university Paedological Institutes took the lead in the scientific study of children’s more serious psychopathology and the development of play-therapy and remedial teaching methods.

“Shock therapies in Spain (1939–1952) after the Civil War: Santa Isabel National Mental Asylum in Leganés,” Ana Conseglieri and. Olga Villasante. Abstract:

The first third of the twentieth century changed the therapeutical landscape with the emergence of new treatments for the mentally ill in asylums. However, the historiography of their use in Spanish psychiatric establishments has been scarcely studied. The popularization of barbiturate sleep therapies, insulin shock, cardiazol therapy, electroshock and leucotomy spread from the beginning of the century. However, the Spanish Civil War and Spain’s isolation during Franco’s autarky (1939–52) made their implementation difficult. Through historiographic research using medical records as documentary sources, this work analyses the socio-demographic conditions of the asylum population during the first decade of Franco’s dictatorship. The treatments used in Leganés Mental Asylum are described and are compared with those used in other Spanish psychiatric institutions.

“Mental observation wards: an alternative provision for emergency psychiatric care in England in the first half of the twentieth century,” Colin Cowan. Abstract:

In England in the early twentieth century, mental observation wards in workhouses developed as a parallel service to the asylums for emergency mental health admissions under the 1890 Lunacy Act, particularly in urban areas and especially London on account of local policy. The purpose of the wards was initial patient assessment and early discharge or certification, and there was controversy between their medical supporters and the Board of Control about any extension of their remit which might usurp the role of the mental hospitals. Their significance declined with changing policy in the NHS era, as more emergency admissions went to mental hospitals, and local treatment units emerged. This article explores the history of these services in the context of the changing legal and policy frameworks.

“Older people in hospitals for the insane in New South Wales, Australia, 1849–1905,” Brian Draper. Abstract:

Older people had high admission rates to hospitals for the insane in New South Wales, Australia, in the second half of the nineteenth century. The medical casebooks of 226 patients aged 60 years and over admitted to two hospitals for the insane between 1849 and 1905 were examined. Aggressive behaviour (35.4%), suicidal behaviour (23.9%), fears of harm to self (19.9%) and alcohol issues (13.7%) were identified. Physical health factors (35.8%), functional impairment (18.6%) and poor nourishment (8.8%) were noted. Common diagnoses were mania (36.7%), dementia (31.9%) and melancholia (17.7%). Twenty-first-century diagnoses were assigned in nearly 94 per cent of cases with concordance that varied by diagnosis. The majority of admissions had serious mental disorders, with only 29.6 per cent being discharged.

“Yawning in the history of psychiatry. Olivier Walusinski. Abstract:

Yawning is a fascinating physiological behaviour that has been poorly addressed except in old medical books. Whereas the purpose of this behaviour is still not clearly identified, the ancient authors made it a clinical symptom, especially a psychological one. After presenting some current notions about yawning, we review publications on yawning written by physicians, from antiquity to the twentieth century, and, in particular, those dealing with psychological and psychiatric aspects.

“?A?f?riyyeh: A History of Madness, Modernity, and War in the Middle East,” Joelle M Abi-Rached. Abstract:

My book, published in 2020, reconstructs the history of ?A?f?riyyeh, one of the first ‘modern’ mental hospitals in the Middle East. It uses the rise and fall of this institution as a lens through which to examine the development of modern psychiatric theory and practice in the region as well as the socio-political history of modern Lebanon. ?A?f?riyyeh becomes a window into social-policy questions relating to dependency and welfare, definitions of deviance, the relation of mission to empire, state-building processes, and the relation of medical authority to religion. The book also examines the impact of war on health and healthcare infrastructures. Reflecting on the afterlife of this and other institutions, the book calls for a new ‘ethics of memory.’

“Do no harm in due process – a historical analysis of social determinates of institutionalization in the USA,” Tyler Durns. Abstract:

Involuntary hospitalization has been a fundamental function of psychiatric care for mentally ill persons in the USA for centuries. Procedural and judicial practices of inpatient psychiatric treatment and civil commitment in the USA have served as a by-product of socio-political pressures that demanded constant reform throughout history. The origin of modern commitment laws can best be understood through the lens of cultural paradigms that led to their creation and these suggest caution for future legislative amendments.

Psychoanalysis and anti-racism in mid-20th-century America: An alternative angle of vision

AHP readers will be interested in a new piece in History of the Human Sciences: “Psychoanalysis and anti-racism in mid-20th-century America: An alternative angle of vision,” by Tom Fielder. Abstract:

The conventional historiography of psychoanalysis in America offers few opportunities for the elaboration of anti-racist themes, and instead American ‘ego psychology’ has often been regarded as the most acute exemplar of ‘racist’ psychoanalysis. In this article, consistent with the historiographical turn Burnham first identified under the heading of ‘the New Freud Studies’, I distinguish between histories of psychoanalytic practitioners and histories of psychoanalytic ideas in order to open out an alternative angle of vision on the historiography. For psychoanalytic ideas were in fact omnipresent within American culture at mid-century, and they played a fundamental role in the psychological reworking of race that unfolded in the work of social scientists, literary artists, and cultural critics in the 1940s and early Cold War years, culminating in the Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954, a major landmark in the civil rights narrative. By pursuing the implications of psychoanalysis in anti-racist struggles at mid-century, and with particular attention to Richard Wright and his autobiographical novel Black Boy, I move towards unearthing an alternative historical account of the intersection between psychoanalysis and race, which offers new ways for psychoanalysis and the history of the human sciences to think about this period.

Elton Mayo and Thomas Henry Reeve Mathewson: the forgotten Australian pioneers of the treatment of patients with shell shock, neurasthenia and nervous breakdown

A new article in History of Psychiatry may interest AHP readers: “Elton Mayo and Thomas Henry Reeve Mathewson: the forgotten Australian pioneers of the treatment of patients with shell shock, neurasthenia and nervous breakdown” by Avi Ohry and Mandy Matthewson. Abstract:

The contributions of Australians on shell shock are absent from the literature. However, two Australians were pioneers in the treatment of shell shock: George Elton Mayo (1880–1949) and Dr Thomas Henry Reeve Mathewson (1881–1975). They used psychoanalytic approaches to treat psychiatric patients and introduced the psychoanalytic treatment of people who suffered from shell shock. Their ‘talking cure’ was highly successful and challenged the view that shell shock only occurred in men who were malingering and/or lacking in fortitude. Their work demonstrated that people experiencing mental illness could be treated in the community at a time when they were routinely treated as inpatients. It also exemplified the substantial benefits of combining science with clinical knowledge and skill in psychology and psychiatry.

Special Issue: Our Present Crises: Climate Change, Biodiversity Loss, and Social Inequality

A special issue of the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences is now online. The issue, “Our Present Crises: Climate Change, Biodiversity Loss, and Social Inequality,” is guest edited by Graham W. Pickren and Wade E. Pickren. Full details below.

“Signposts to decolonial futures in understanding and addressing our present crises,” Graham W. Pickren and Wade E. Pickren. Abstract:

We introduce the special issue “Our Present Crises: Climate Change, Biodiversity Loss, and Social Inequality” by highlighting how histories of the social and behavioral sciences can contribute to a multifaceted understanding of the links among the climate crisis, massive biodiversity loss, and social and economic inequities of nearly every kind. We propose that although the epistemological and ontological bases of these disciplines are themselves entangled with modernity/coloniality, there are, nonetheless, critical insights to be gained by exposing these entanglements. These insights may help generate visions of decolonial futures which eschew destructive dualisms in favor of relational ontologies which honor the living ecosystem of the earth.

“Do your first works over,” Susan James and Helene Lorenz. Abstract:

This article presents in four parts various understandings of the deep roots of the current climate emergency, some thoughts about alternative transitional paths forward, and the ways the discipline of psychology might be relevant. In Section two, we explore environmental and ontological critiques and analyses that developed in the academic world in the 1990s after the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Columbus in the Americas. In Section three, we analyze the recent emergence of new materialisms and their connections to indigenous relational ontologies and practices in what has been called “the ontological turn” or “the decolonial turn.” In Section four, we trace the effects of coloniality in education. In Section five, we explore approaches to alternative world visions, new educational projects, the possible role of the discipline of psychology in transition discourses, and the urgency of the present moment.

“Energy in the Anthropocene: How the concept of energy shaped both our current crisis and its professed solution,” Anna Simon-Stickley. Abstract:

This essay traces how the concept of energy—defined as the ability to do work in physics—informed two similar fields of knowledge with very dissimilar results. One, the resource economy in the late 19th century, laid some important epistemic and ideological foundations for the destruction of the environment in the present. The other, ecology, introduced a new holistic view of nature, which laid the groundwork for the recent reconceptualization of ethics, epistemology, and humankind’s role on Earth culminating in the Anthropocene hypothesis—formulated in direct opposition to the capitalist, anthropocentric notions inherited from the 19th century. In both cases, it was the concept of energy that enabled thinking about the multifarious visualities, materialities, and temporalities of natural phenomena as united in a single causal substructure of energy exchanges. In resource economics, the energetic worldview imposed an anthropocentric useful/useless divide on the environment—modeled, I argue, on the energy/entropy distinction—and made it “logical” to think of minerals, plants, and human labor as analogous resources, justifiably equated and linked in the economic system. The same ability to equate and connect was fundamental to the discipline of ecology and its application to sociology in the 20th century, and, in more recent years, to philosophy and historiography. In stripping nature of all surface illusions, energy proved enormously efficient for exposing the entanglement of large-scale systems composed of animate and inanimate actors equally imbued with agency.

“Expelled from Eden: How human beings turned planet Earth into a hostile place,” Ana Luiza de França Sá and Victor Lino Bernardes. Abstract:

The focus of this article is the mind–body problem in mainstream modern psychology examined from a decolonial perspective. The construction of the idea of the separation of mind and body is a seminal point of division of labor in the history of modern capitalism. This division perpetuated by the mind–body dualism idea was necessary to justify the enslavement of some and employment to others. Colonization processes have had profound importance on the mind, feelings, behaviors, and political settings. Throughout its history, the subject treated in EuroAmerican psychology has sought to deal with the mind–body problem as an individual, a separate entity, not as part of the psyche as a whole. A new perspective where the mind and body play an intertwined role is necessary considering subjectivity in a cultural-historical approach. The subjective level is defined by the unification between symbolical and emotional cultural processes. The body (emotions) operates in conjunction with the culture and, when amalgamated, constitutes what we entitle as subjectivity. An ontology defines the assumptions that lie under a cosmovision and sustains a way of seeing, feeling, thinking, and acting with oneself, others, and the whole living world. It is what defines the real. The trajectory of this paper is an invitation to shed light from a decolonial perspective on social inequality concerning the present crises of humanity. The consequences of social inequality expressed today indicate the difficulties created by the dichotomy of mind and body.

“The (d)evolution of a technological species: A history and critique of ecopsychology’s constructions of science and technology,” Tal Davidson. Abstract:

In this paper, I aim to convey the history of ecopsychology’s changing conceptualizations of science and technology and their role in facilitating engagement with the ecology movement. To do so, I compare ecopsychology’s treatment of science and technology in two important publications: Gatherings, a non-peer-reviewed digital journal of the early 2000s that portrayed ecopsychology in humanistic, socially critical, and artistic terms; and Ecopsychology, a scholarly journal founded in 2009 that regarded ecopsychological questions as testable hypotheses, and distinguished itself from prior (“first generation”) ecopsychology on the basis of its embrace of technological progress and the scientific method. As a part of this shift, ecopsychologists of the “second generation” championed the notion that humans are a “Technological Species,” an ontological statement that naturalized the increasing sophistication of high technology as the result of inherent human drives, and established conceptual groundwork for studies that used consumer technology such as computers to mediate experiences of nature. In the final part of the paper, I critique the “Technological Species” proposition for obscuring the historical and material conditions that make the existence of consumer technology possible, such as the ecologically devastating mining of rare-earth metals on colonized land in Central and South America. I argue that, to be socially and ecologically accountable, ecopsychology should turn toward practices that help us make sense of consumer technology’s place in systems of colonialist and ecological violence, process our place within these systems as users of consumer technology, and build community less dependent on technology.

““That future age of which we can only dream”: Exploring the origins of the climate crisis in the Story of Progress,” Michael B. Smith. Abstract:

The principal source of the ecological ruptures planet Earth is currently experiencing—the unfolding climate emergency above all—is a story a small subset of humans have been telling themselves and living according to the precepts for about 300 years. Slowly and often reluctantly the number of adherents to this story has grown until there are few places on the planet where the story does not hold at least partial sway. Over the past 300 years, the Story of Progress has evolved from a possibility to an article of faith. Examining the history of the Story of Progress makes visible the degree to which the idea of Progress has become woven into language itself, making it difficult to articulate other possibilities—and, therefore, difficult to escape the story that has produced a catastrophic climate crisis.

“Technoscientific control of nature: The ultimate paradox,” Martin Fichman. Abstract:

The current interlinked environmental and socioeconomic global crises constitute the gravest threat to humanity’s well-being, indeed survival, today. Studies of the historical roots and contemporary manifestations of the various elements of these crises—including accelerating environmental degradation, unfettered capitalist technoscientific/industrial expansion, overpopulation, and overconsumption—are plentiful. Also well-known is the influence of Francis Bacon’s writings, particularly The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organon (1620), and the utopian New Atlantis (1627), on the development of empiricism and the modern scientific method as well as the reform and organization of scientific research. Bacon’s significance for the founding of the Royal Society of London (1660) and for the plan and structure of the Encyclopedie (1751–1772), coupled with his oft-cited aphoristic injunctions to study nature to control/dominate it, are staples in the lore and justification of technoscience. I argue that the enduring appeal of so-called Baconianism derives, in part, from a fundamental misappropriation of certain of Bacon’s original ideas. Specifically, the complex ethical and religious framework within which Bacon situated his vision of scientific and technological development was discarded (or ignored) so that, by the early decades of the 18th century, Baconianism had come to be understood almost exclusively for its utilitarian role in society. This deracinated version became the familiar trope of technoscience’s unlimited potential to transform nature (including human nature and behavior) in the service of an ideology of industrial/consumerist expansion since then. Linkage between the history of science/technology and addictive consumerism, apparent by the close of the 19th century, has been insufficiently examined. Such addictive consumerist behavior and continued virtually unregulated industrialization and production, were effectively removed from ethical scrutiny and a high degree of material acquisition and personal/societal rapaciousness became the norm rather than the exception in most countries. I suggest that further historical deconstruction of this denuded Baconianism will yield important insights in the search for viable solutions to the present global socioenvironmental crises.

Book Reviews

Broken dreams: An intimate history of the midlife crisis Jackson, Mark Reaktion Books, 2021.
Reviewed by Susanne Schmidt

Psychologies in revolution: Alexander Luria’s “Romantic science” and Soviet social history Proctor, Hannah Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 259pp. 77,99€ (cloth). ISBN 978-3-030-35027-7; 978-3-030-35028-4 (eBook). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35028-4
Reviewed by Roger Smith

Society on the edge: Social science and public policy in the postwar United States Fontaine, Phillipe and Pooley, Jefferson (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, 2021. 280pp. £74.99 (cloth). ISBN 9781108487139; 9781108732192 (paperback); 9781108765961 (ebook). https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108765961
Reviewed by Daniel Geary

The Science of Violent Behavior Development and Prevention. Contributions of the Second World War Generation. Tremblay, Richard E. Cambridge University Press, 2021. 388 pp. $110 (cloth). ISBN 978-1-108-83481-0
Reviewed by Marga Vicedo

Talking Therapy: Knowledge and Power in American Psychiatric Nursing. Smith, Kylie Rutgers University Press, 2020. 192 pp. $28.95 (paperback). ISBN 9781978801455; 9781978801462 (cloth); 9781978801493 (pdf); 9781978801479 (epub).
Reviewed by Laura D. Hirshbein

Economic Knowledge in Socialism, 1945-89 Düppe, Till & Boldyrev, Ivan (Eds.) (2019). A special issue of History of Political Economy, 51( 6). 328pp. ISBN 978-1-4780-0937-5 (paperback)
Reviewed by Diana Kurkovsky West

Conversations with Carl Jung and reactions from Ernest Jones. Richard, Evans. Jodi, Kearns (Ed.) The Center for the History of Psychology Series. The University of Akron Press, 2020. $24.95 (paperback). ISBN 9781629221939.
Reviewed by Philip Kuhn

From Melancholia to Depression: Disordered Mood in Nineteenth-Century British Psychiatry Jansson, Åsa Series: Mental Health in Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan, 2021. 234 pp. Open access (ebook). ISBN: 978-3-030-54802-5; 978-3-030-54801-8 (cloth); 978-3-030-54804-9 (paper)
Reviewed by Jonathan Sadowsky

Healthy Minds in the Twentieth Century: In and Beyond the Asylum Steven, J. Taylor and Brumby, Alice (Eds.) Series: Mental Health in Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 274 pp. Open access 978-3-030-27275-3 (ebook). ISBN: 978-3-030-27274-6 (cloth); 978-3-030-27277-7 (paper)
Reviewed by Michael Rembis

The empathy diaries: A memoir Sherry, Turkle Penguin Press, 2021. Xxi + 384 pp. $28.00 (cloth). ISBN-13: 9781108834810
Reviewed by Raymond E. Fancher

A Silvan Tomkins handbook: Foundations for affect theory Frank, Adam J. and Wilson, Elizabeth A. University of Minnesota Press, 2020. 203 pp. $20 (paper). ISBN: 978-0-8166-8000-9
Reviewed by Rob Boddice

Unnerved: Anxiety, social change, and the transformation of modern mental health Schnittker, Jason Columbia University Press, 2021. 272 pp. $35 (paper). ISBN: 9780231200356
Reviewed by Michael E. Staub

Live Now: Mental Radio

MENTAL RADIO Sunday 31st, October, 7:00pm – 8:00pm GMT (8:00pm CET/12:00pm PDT) live streamed on Resonance 104.4 FM

Image from: Karl Krall, Denkende Tiere: Denübertragung zwischen Mensch und Tier, Stuttgart Verlag der Gesellscahft für Tierpsychologie, 1927.

Aleksander Kolkowski [U Luxembourg] and kitt price [Queen Mary, U London] recreate the experience of ’thinking-in’, when thousands of listeners engaged in radio telepathy experiments during the 1920s and 30s. British and American parapsychologists insisted that broadcasting was simply a means to access minds in the mass, but European investigators claimed they had captured the sound of ‘brain waves’ using radio equipment. MENTAL RADIO reanimates the archived protocols of mass telepathy, mixing the signals received by listeners with the soundscapes of the early twentieth century’s radiating brain.  MENTAL RADIO is brought to life through the voices of:Sandra Binion, Luciano Chessa, Nicolas Collins, Melissa van Drie, David Duff, Angela Dunstan, Christine Ferguson, Eugene Giddens, Alfred Hiatt, Vitaly Kamluk, Aleksander Kolkowski, Michal Libera, Lou Mallozzi, Glyn Perrin, kitt price, Damien Simon, Quentin Skinner and Andreas Sommer.

Repeat broadcasts will air on 2nd November, 8pm, and 3rd November, 10am.

Commissioned as part of The Media of Mediumship, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.Resonance is a groundbreaking 24/7 radio station which broadcasts on 104.4 FM to central London, DAB to Greater London, nationally on Radioplayer and live streamed to the rest of the world.