Category Archives: General

CCHP Film Night, June 17th: 1943 U.S. Air Force film “Cadet Classification,” narrated by Ronald Reagan

A free film night this Thursday, June 17th hosted by the Cummings Center for the History of Psychology will be of interest to AHP readers. As CCHP announced:

To celebrate this year’s virtual meeting of Cheiron: The International Society for the History of Behavioral & Social Sciences, the CCHP will be hosting a Virtual Film Night this Thursday, June 17th at 5:00pm ET.

Join us live on our YouTube channel for a screening of the 1943 U.S. Air Force film “Cadet Classification,” narrated by then-lieutenant Ronald Reagan. CCHP Assistant Director Dr. Jennifer Bazar and Archives Assistant Tony Pankuch will introduce the film and present original World War II artifacts and documents from the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Viewers can take part in a Q&A session during & after the film via live chat. You can access the live screening here:

Conference: Madness, Media, Milieus. Félix Guattari in Context. June 17, 18, and 21, 2021

AHP readers may be interested in the conference “Madness, Media, Milieus. Félix Guattari in Context” taking place this week and next. Full details below.

Organized by Henning SchmidgenMathias SchönherElena Vogman

With Andrew Goffey, Angela Melitopoulos, Marlon Miguel, François Pain, Peter Pál Pelbart, Anne Querrien, and Anne Sauvagnargues

This conference explores Félix Guattari’s (1930–1992) multifaceted oeuvre as largely informed by his many years of active work at the psychiatric clinic of La Borde. Guattari’s therapeutic experiments with media – such as typewriters, film, and audio recordings, his cooperation with artists and architects, and the publication of newspapers and books decisively shaped the machine-thought that he would later develop, most predominantly in collaboration with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. While Guattari expanded Institutional Psychotherapy and its umwelt-theoretical concepts into a theory and praxis of transversality, the concept of the machine moved into the center of his thought.

In contradistinction to conventionally understood ‘technical objects‘, Guattari’s concept of the machine denotes a concatenation of heterogenous components traversed by a capacity, a desire, a surplus. What role do Guattari’s psychiatric practices play in the genesis of this machinic vitalism? How do desiring-machines transform the traditional understanding of the psyche? In which way do they undermine dichotomies such as aesthetics vs. politics, individual vs. collective, subject vs. object? Finally, how do Guattari’s experimental interventions at the interface of politics and psychiatry open perspectives on present problems such as artificial intelligence, behavioral tracking, or digital cultures?

This conference is the opening event of the research project »Madness, Media, Milieus. Reconfiguring the Humanities in Postwar Europe« directed by Elena Vogman. It argues that media form and transform our milieus, from geopolitical landscapes to our most intimate environs. The project studies a series of media and milieu practices developed in different settings of Institutional Psychotherapy since the 1940s. It examines efforts to produce environments, institutions, and milieus that would facilitate processes of psychological therapy and healing, in particular by psychiatrists and activists such as François Tosquelles, Jean Oury, Fernand Deligny, Frantz Fanon and Félix Guattari.

Drawing on newly discovered archives, the project explores the fundamental role of art and media which crucially contributed to the emergence of psychiatric milieus. At the same time, it investigates the productive repercussions of these media-milieu practices in critical humanities discourses. The project argues that these practices had a crucial impact on the humanities in postwar Europe, in particular post-structuralism and post-colonial studies, but also media theory, film studies, and science and technology studies. Media mold and modify milieus: This is the general hypothesis that will be reflected in four individual sub-projects carried out by historians of art, science, and technology, culminating in a joint exhibit presenting largely unseen texts, images, and films.


Thursday, 17 June 2021

5:00 – 5:15 pmIntroduction and Welcome by Marlon Miguel, Henning Schmidgen
and Elena Vogman
5:15 – 5:45 pmAnne Querrien: Machines of Care
5:45 – 6:10 pmDiscussion
6:10 – 6:20 pmBreak
6:20 – 7:00 pmFrançois Pain: From One Machine to Another (screening and comment)
7:00 – 7:30 pmConversation between Anne Querrien and François Pain and Discussion

Friday, 18 June 2021 

5:00 – 5:30 pmHenning Schmidgen: Guattari’s Architectures
5:30 – 5:50 pmDiscussion
5:50 – 6:00 pmBreak
6:00 – 6:30 pmAndrew Goffey: Patric Subjectivation and Machinic Environment
6:30 – 6:50 pmDiscussion

Monday, 21 June 2021

5:00 – 5:30 pmAngela Melitopoulos: Machinic Animism and
the Revolutionary Practice of Geo-Psychiatry (based
on the audio-visual research Assemblages, 2010, and Matri LInear B, 2021)
5:30 – 5:50 pmDiscussion
5:50 – 6:00 pmBreak
6:00 – 6:30 pm Peter Paul Pelbart: De L’Atmosphère
6:30 – 6:50 pmDiscussion
6:50 – 7:00 pmBreak
7:00 – 7:30 pmAnne Sauvagnargues: tba.
7:30 – 7:50 pmDiscussion
7:50 – 8:00 pmConcluding Remarks by Mathias Schönher

» Schedule for download

»Madness, Media, Milieus. Reconfiguring the Humanities in Postwar Europe« is sponsored by the Volkswagen Foundation and has its permanent basis at the Faculty of Media, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar.

All updates on the workshop and more information on the research project can be found on the website:

[Zoom links are available via request. Please register by email: felix.brieden[at]]

Joseph Delboeuf on time as the mechanism of free will

A new open access article in Theory & Psychology may interest AHP readers: “Joseph Delboeuf on time as the mechanism of free will,” by André R. LeBlanc. Abstract:

In the early 1880s, Joseph Delboeuf proposed a little-known but ingenious solution to the problem the law of the conservation of energy poses for free will. When energy is transferred between two bodies, the law of energy conservation requires that the energy before and after the transfer be the same, but it says nothing of the time it must take. If we could delay this transfer, Delboeuf proposed, we could alter the course of matter without compromising the conservation of energy. This article begins by tracing the early history of the conflict between free will and the first law of thermodynamics and by recounting some initial attempts to resolve it. It next describes Delboeuf’s theory and the arguments that were made against it, before situating it with respect to some recent developments in the philosophy and psychology of free will.

JHBS CFPs: (1) Historicizing “Therapeutic Culture” – Towards a Material, Pragmatic, and Polycentric History of Psychologization, (2) Revival of Psychology in Eastern Europe After the Fall of Totalitarian Communist Regimes

Two calls for papers, one for a special issue and another for a Perspectives themed section, have been issued by the Journal of the History of the Behavioral SciencesFull details on these calls, as well as submission instructions can be found on the JHBS website. Topic details and guest editor information are provided below.

JHBS Open Call for Papers: Historicizing “Therapeutic Culture” – Towards a Material, Pragmatic, and Polycentric History of Psychologization
Guest editors: R. Amouroux, L. Gerber, M. Aronov, C. Jaccard (University of Lausanne) 

JHBS Open Call for Papers: A PERSPECTIVES Themed Section on: Revival of Psychology in Eastern Europe After the Fall of Totalitarian Communist Regimes
Guest edited by Julien-Ferencz Kiss, PhD

Mental Hygiene, Psychoanalysis, and Interwar Psychology: The Making of the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis

The most recent issue of Isis includes a piece of interest to AHP readers: “Mental Hygiene, Psychoanalysis, and Interwar Psychology: The Making of the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis,” by Bican Polat. Abstract:

The maternal deprivation hypothesis was arguably the most discussed debate in midcentury psychiatry. Combined with the gender ideology prevalent in America and Britain, it solidified the idea that the mother-child relationship had formative influence on personality development. This essay explores the formation of this hypothesis by situating its knowledge claims against an institutional innovation set to prevent juvenile delinquency and promote mental hygiene, the establishment of child guidance clinics on both sides of the Atlantic in the late 1920s. It then tracks the development of investigative agendas by child guidance practitioners, examining the practices they adopted to construct psychological knowledge claims in conformity with preventive objectives and positivist standards. Shifting the historiographical focus toward the clinical scenes in which psychological assertions were made, the essay examines how investigators sought to determine the “pathogenic” influence of early parental environment by way of estimating its emotional qualities. It argues that it was this positivist-determinist effort to achieve preventive goals that foregrounded the role of the mother in the etiology of personality disturbance and marked the knowledge field that came to be called the maternal deprivation debate.

Call for Papers: Foundational Contributions of Black Scholars in Psychology

A call for papers for a special issue of American Psychologist focused on “Foundational Contributions of Black Scholars in Psychology” may interest AHP readers. Full details below.

Submission deadlines

  • Letter of intent deadline: June 30, 2021
  • Full-length manuscript submission deadline: December 1, 2021

Guest editors

  • Fanita Tyrell, PhD, University of Maryland
  • Helen Neville, PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • José M. Causadias, PhD, Arizona State University
  • Kevin Cokley, PhD, University of Texas at Austin
  • Karlyn Adams-Wiggins, Portland State University


Many psychology departments in the United States have issued statements following the murders of Breonna Taylor and George Floyd in which they affirm a commitment to fight against anti-Black racism. Staff, students, post-doctoral fellows, and faculty also issued demands for concrete actions to address anti-Black racism in these departments.

Despite these important steps, much is needed to overcome the history of anti-Black racism in psychology and the lack of recognition and representation of Black (e.g., African American, Afro-Caribbean, Afro-Latinx, African) scholars and scholarship in mainstream psychology.

This problem has also come with adverse effects to teaching and learning. To this day, many graduate and undergraduate programs in psychology routinely neglect innovative and foundational contributions in their syllabi, impoverishing students’ training and depriving them from gaining a better understanding of psychology.

Ultimately, the systematic disregard of Black scholars and scholarship reinforces a view of psychology dominated by the experience and perspectives of White scholars, and, by implication, the idea of Black inferiority.


The goal of this special issue is to catalog and enhance the visibility of the contributions of scholars of African descent to the broad field of psychology.

The proposed special issue intervenes on anti-Black racism at the epistemic level by pushing back against the invisibility, under-recognition, and underrepresentation of Black scholarship in psychology.

We are interested in papers that curate, review, and integrate innovative and foundational contributions by scholars of African descent, including schools of thought they created or contributed to.

Papers should focus on the contributions of Black psychologists who (a) write in the area of race, ethnicity, culture, and racism that center the experiences of people of African descent (e.g., Nigrescence, PVEST, and Optimal Theory) and/or (b) theoretical or empirical contributions created by Black scholars that address issues of race, ethnicity, racism and/or culture that are not specific to the experiences of Black people (e.g., intersectionality, social dominance, stereotype threat, and white racial identity).

In other words, these works must either incorporate a strengths-based approach to understanding the lived experiences of Black people and/or provide a critical analysis of race, racism, ethnicity, or culture to understand people or society.

With regard to purpose, we seek articles that:

  • will help all scholars re-envision their work to be more inclusive of research by Black psychologists;
  • help psychology departments embrace anti-racist ideals by providing readings that might be included in the syllabi for undergraduate, master, and doctoral programs courses. We envision that the article and the original works cited in the articles could be included in course curriculum and syllabi.

We seek proposals that include scholarship or a body of work that informs teaching, and research in one or more areas of psychology. These subfields include but are not limited to Black, community, counseling, clinical, developmental, educational, health, industrial-organizational, legal, personality, school, and social psychology.

With regard to content, we seek proposals that discuss the theoretical, and empirical contributions of Black scholars that had, or should have, a profound impact in shaping all subfields of psychology.

We encourage proposals that:

  • address the collective theory, contribution, and works of prominent Black psychologists;
  • focus on innovative and foundational contributions that reflects diverse, historical, and contemporary perspectives of Black scholars living in and outside of the context of the United States or North America;
  • provide a historical review of the evolution of Black psychology in the USA since the publication of Guthrie’s book in the 1970s.
  • highlight contributions that are native to other fields that were adapted to psychology. For instance, intersectionality originated in legal studies, Black feminism, and critical race theory are fundamental to advancing psychology. In particular, we are interested in psychological research contributions that draw upon Black feminist theories such as gendered racial microaggressions and/or scholars who have built their careers in this area of research.

Manuscript submissions and contributions to this special issue are not limited exclusively to Black scholars.

Proposals should provide a clear description of the method they will employ to select the works included in their submissions. These methods can include, but not be limited to, citation frequency, other quantitative or qualitative indicators, surveys and interviews with psychologists in each field, consultations with historians and scholars in Black studies. 

Proposals can include scholars and contributions of any historical moment. Regardless of the time period in which the theory or works were introduced, proposals should place the theory/work in a historical context and discuss its contemporary relevance/applications.

Submission details

Researchers interested in submitting an article to the special issue should submit a letter of intent to Fanita Tyrell no later than June 30, 2021.

The letter of intent (two-page single space maximum) should include a title, authors and affiliations, and provide a detailed description of the proposed manuscript and how it would fit into the special issue.

Only those letters of intent that are deemed responsive to the call for this special issue will be invited to submit a manuscript.

Letters of intent that are not invited to submit full manuscripts are welcome to submit to American Psychologist through the regular submission protocol.

If invited to submit a full manuscript, the submission due date is December 1, 2021.

Invitations are not a guarantee of acceptance of manuscripts for review or publication; all manuscripts will undergo an external, anonymous peer review process.

For further questions regarding this special issue please contact the guest editors.

Manuscripts must be prepared according to the manuscript submission information available on the American Psychologist home page and submitted electronically through the journal’s manuscript submission portal.

Time, trauma, and the brain: How suicide came to have no significant precipitating event

AHP readers may be interested in a new piece in Science in Context: “Time, trauma, and the brain: How suicide came to have no significant precipitating event,” by Stephanie Lloyd and Alexandre Larivée. Abstract:

In this article, we trace shifting narratives of trauma within psychiatric, neuroscience, and environmental epigenetics research. We argue that two contemporary narratives of trauma – each of which concerns questions of time and psychopathology, of the past invading the present – had to be stabilized in order for environmental epigenetics models of suicide risk to be posited. Through an examination of these narratives, we consider how early trauma came to be understood as playing an etiologically significant role in the development of suicide risk. Suicide, in these models, has come to be seen as a behavior that has no significant precipitating event, but rather an exceptional precipitating neurochemical state, whose origins are identified in experiences of early traumatic events. We suggest that this is a part of a broader move within contemporary neurosciences and biopsychiatry to see life as post: seeing life as specific form of post-traumatic subjectivity.

Spring issue of Revista de Historia de la Psicología

The Spring issue of Revista de Historia de la Psicología is now online. Full titles, authors, and English abstracts follow below.

“Max Möller and the foundation of the IAAP. An epistolary history. [Max Möller y la Fundación de la IAAP. Una historia epistolar],” Helio Carpintero and Enrique Lafuente. Abstract:

Although IAAP foundation (International Association of Applied Psychology) is referred to a first conference in psychotecnics which E. Claparède organized in Geneva in 1920, its formal condition as a scientific association had its beginning in a subsequent congress held in Paris in 1927. There, the group gathered around Claparède joined another group promoted by a Latvian psychologist, M. Moeller, and mainly formed by German trained professionals. This latter group became finally integrated into the former. The three letters presented here reveal so far unknown aspects of the contacts between Moeller, Claparède and some other colleagues which in the end led to the fusion of both movements under the common title of “International Association of Psychotechnics”, which a few years later was to turn into the current IAAP.

“A window oon the theatre of micro-interactions: the Polish psychologist Alina Szemi?ska at the Internationl Centre of Genetic Epistemology, 1967-1972. [Una ventana hacia el teatro de las microinteracciones: la psicóloga polaca Alina Szemi?ska en el Centro Internacional de Epistemología Genética, 1967-1972],” Marc J. Ratcliff and Ramiro Tau. Abstract:

The functioning of the Interdisciplinary Centre of Genetic Epistemology (CIEG), created by Piaget in 1955, required the overcoming of obstacles in communication and meetings between actors with diverse backgrounds, training and perspectives. In this respect, it is possible to recognize in the CIEG the deployment of a tacit mode of promoting interactions, within the general framework of a common scientific project. We examine this hypothesis through the case of the Polish psychologist Alina Szemi?ska, who, after working with Piaget in the 1930s, returned to Geneva in 1967 as a guest researcher of the Centre. Her participation in those years provided us with a window into the sociointeractive aspects of this research culture and, in particular, into what we call the micro-theatre of the interactions of the academic community. Based on unpublished archival documents, we reconstruct this dynamic, focusing on the role played by Szemi?ska during the period from 1967 to 1972.

“Ramón y Cajal on the pedagogy of sport (Thoughts of an octogenarian). [Ramón y Cajal sobre la pedagogía del deporte (Pensamientos de un octogenario)],” Sousana Papadopoulou, Ana B. Vivas, and Lazaros C. Triarhou. Abstract:

The article highlights the thoughts of the Spanish neurohistologist, Santiago Ram.n y Cajal (1852–1934), on the pedagogy of sport, based on passages from his books The World Seen at Eighty Years, Pedagogical Thoughts, Café Chats, and Recollections of My Life. The ideas discussed by the illustrious Spaniard in the early part of the twentieth century are made available in English, because of his foresight regarding current trends in the balanced combination of nutrition, training load, and recovery as far as sports performance and health maintenance are concerned.

“Los artículos de Julián Marías en revistas españolas de psicología. [Julián Marías’ papers in Spanish journals of psychology],” Joaquín García-Alandete. Abstract:

The Spanish philosopher Julián Marías (1914-2005) published several papers in the Journal of General and Applied Psychology, especially in the 1940s and 1950s of the past century, and in the Journal of History of Psychology in the late 1990s. In the current study, these papers are synthetically analyzed, identifying in them essential nuclei of Marías’ thought and circumstance.

“Dos autores italianos en la Psicología Peruana: Guido Villa y Sante de Sanctis. [Two Italian authors in the Peruvian Psychology: Guido Villa and Sante de Sanctis],” Arturo Orbegoso Galarza. Abstract:

Peruvian psychology received, in its beginnings, the influx of German, French and American authors. This article seeks to inform about two Italian authors in this psychology between 1910 and 1920. This is a little researched topic. It was used primary and secondary information: historical archives and latest publications. First, the role of the Italian culture in Peru is descripted. Later, the penetration of the criminal anthropology is reviewed. In conclusion, Guido Villa (1867-1949) and Sante De Sanctis (1862- 1935) ideas contributed to the initial Peruvian objective psychology.

“Besos peligrosos: José Ingenieros y la mirada del criminólogo. [Dangerous kisses: José Ingenieros and the criminologist’s look],” Ana Elisa Ostrovsky and Luis Alberto Moya. Abstract:

The reception of Italian criminology in Argentina, by authors such as José Ingenieros, was anchored in the social problem of the moment. The modernization process of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which involved the secularization of its institutions and the strengthening of the agro-export model, had as a counterpoint a massive immigration and unplanned urbanization that led to a high degree of social conflict. Among the objects addressed by the new science are alcoholism, prostitution, but also small inappropriate behaviors. One of those small plausible objects of become a crime was the kiss. The present work constitutes an analysis of a presentation called The crime of kissing, which José Ingenieros will make on this subject. In it, the author made a reconstruction from the criminological view of the act of kissing, installing as a classification criterion the question about consent.

The vision of Helmholtz

AHP readers may be interested in a new article, “The vision of Helmholtz,” by Nicholas Wade now available in Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. Abstract:

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821–1894) began investigating vision at a time when its study was undergoing a revolution. Laboratory experiments were augmenting the long history of naturalistic observations. Instruments of stimulus control enabled the manipulation of time and space in ways that had not been possible previously, and Helmholtz added to their tally. Vision was a central issue in his early years as an academic, and the bicentenary of his birth is here celebrated visually. Much of his research on vision was described in his Handbuch der physiologischen Optik, which was translated into English to mark the centenary of his birth. The history of his Handbuch is examined, together with illustrating highlights from it. Helmholtz’s contributions to understanding the eye as an optical instrument, the sensations of vision, and perception were expressed in the three parts of the Handbuch, which became the three volumes of his Treatise on Physiological Optics.

New HoP: Special Section on the History of Emotions, Relational Mind, Little Albert

The May 2021 issue of History of Psychology is now available. The issue includes a special section on the history of emotions, as well as two regular articles on the relational mind and Little Albert, a commentary on early uses of the term ‘psychology’, and a book review. Full details below.

Special Section: The History of Emotions
Susan Lanzoni: Editor

“Introduction to the special section on the history of emotions.” Lanzoni, Susan. Abstract:

In this series of stimulating reflective essays, prominent scholars of emotion and its history address the challenges and rewards of interdisciplinarity, recent work in the field, and the many conceptions of “emotion”—a polyvocality that presents limitations as well as opportunities.

“Emotions: Some historical observations.” Rosenwein, Barbara H. Abstract:

Historical studies of emotions have much to add to the lively interest in emotions today. This article problematizes the currently popular notion of “basic emotions,” shows how the history of past theories offers new ways to think about the category “emotions” and the items that populate it, and offers a methodology for approaching the emotions through the lens of “emotional communities” (the groups in which people live and feel). It concludes by suggesting how historians and scientists may work together to further our understanding of emotions.

“Emotions in the history of emotions.” Barclay, Katie. Abstract:

This brief note explores how emotions have been conceptualized by scholars in the “history of emotions,” particularly attending to approaches that explore emotion as a network of relations between bodies, material culture, ideas, language and environment. Here, practice-based, performance-based, new materialist, and posthumanist ideas offer an opportunity to refigure what we consider important to the production of emotion.

“Psychological construction of episodes called emotions.” Russell, James A. Abstract:

People witness or experience episodes they explain as due to an emotion. Like ordinary folk, many academic theorists try to understand these obviously important episodes in the same way using the terms emotion, fear, anger, joy, grief, and so on. Yet, each term refers to a heterogeneous cluster of events with unclear boundaries and no single cause—rather than to a prepackaged pancultural bundle of common components (subjective experience, behavior, expression, thought, physiological change). Psychological construction is an alternative approach that treats the concepts of emotion, fear, and so on as the folk concepts they are. It invites emotion researchers in the sciences and humanities to work together to characterize different folk theories of emotion and their influence, but also, in a separate project, to hone more precise scientific concepts embedded in separate accounts of each component of emotional episodes, cognizant of both human diversity and what humans have in common.

“What the history of emotions can offer to psychologists, economists, and computer scientists (among others).” Matt, Susan J. Abstract:

Historians of the emotions explore how feelings—and the way they are categorized and conceptualized—have changed over time and across culture. This essay examines some key assumptions about emotion as an historical artifact. It also explores the promise of interdisciplinary research on the emotions. Finally, it looks at particular disciplines, including economics, computer science, and some subfields in psychology, which would be enriched by an historical perspective.

“The trouble with affect.” Leys, Ruth. Abstract:

The trouble with affect is the trouble that arises when the emotions are theorized in anti-intentionist terms as discrete, universal affects that depend on evolved “affect programs” in the brain, affect programs that when triggered discharge in an involuntary fashion with characteristic physiological and behavioral manifestations, including especially signature facial expressions. It has been clear for some time that the evidence for this theory is inadequate and that the implications of the position are troubling. The paper briefly explores these issues.

“A change of pace: The history of (emotional) experiences.” Zaragoza Bernal, Juan M. Abstract:

In this article, I present some of the most interesting attempts to go beyond the natural kinds approach to emotions, paying special attention to the work of Fay Bound Alberti and Rob Boddice, both of whom have been influenced by Lisa Feldman Barrett’s theory of constructed emotions. I propose that some of the flaws detected in the history of the emotions by Bound Alberti and Boddice can be solved relying on social psychology, and specifically I propose Larissa Z. Tiedens and Colin W. Leach’s (2004) The Social Life of Emotions as a useful approach. In conjunction with Barrett’s theory, Tiedens and Leach provide a framework in which history of the emotions can harness its full potential, encompassing a more comprehensive approach to emotional experience. I discuss the idea of a new history of emotional experiences and suggest some of its possible features. I make a plea for a collaborative, transdisciplinary approach to the study of the emotions, in which humanities and social sciences play a fundamental role.

“Emotional experiences.” Moscoso, Javier. Abstract:

This article pleads for a history of emotional experiences that allows for the understanding of complex emotional phenomena in the past that are not easily accommodated within the history of emotions framework. Following the avenues opened by the anthropology of experience, the article considers different ways in which the history of emotional experiences should allow transhistorical and cross-cultural comparisons.

Regular Articles

“The relational mind: In between history, psychology and anthropology.” Rotman, Youval. Abstract:

The article examines the new psychological language that developed in late antiquity to formulate a personal relationship with the one God. This language used the Greek term for the soul, the psuch? (Latin anima), and defined it as the relational faculty of the human mind. The perception of the human mind as relational became instrumental to formulate the experience of conversion, that is, a mental and emotional process of self-transformation, psychological in the modern sense of the term. The article analyzes the psychological perspective of the ancient authors who developed the idea of the relational faculty to connect to God by using modern theories that perceive the human mind as relationally configured. In order to analyze ancient and modern writers together, the article develops a new methodological approach to move in between ancient and modern writings without falling into the pit of anachronism. This approach enables the author to define a common theoretical field for historical analysis and psychoanalysis, and to use the historical evidence in order to evaluate and challenge the modern psychoanalytic prism. To bridge between the two disciplines, the present article uses anthropology. Thanks to its psychological aspect, anthropology of religion validates the two-way relationship between history and psychoanalysis. Anthropological field research on the beliefs in tree spirits conducted by the author in an animistic environment has revealed a relational psychological language in the core of the animistic belief, and provides the missing link to connect history and psychoanalysis.

“Did Little Albert actually acquire a conditioned fear of furry animals? What the film evidence tells us.” Powell, Russell A.; Schmaltz, Rodney M. Abstract:

Watson and Rayner’s (1920) attempt to condition a fear of furry animals and objects in an 11-month-old infant is one of the most widely cited studies in psychology. Known as the Little Albert study, it is typically presented as evidence for the role of classical conditioning in fear development. Some critics, however, have noted deficiencies in the study that suggest that little or no fear conditioning actually occurred. These criticisms were primarily based on the published reports of the study. In this article, we present a detailed analysis of Watson’s (1923) film record of the study to determine the extent to which it provides evidence of conditioning. Our findings concur with the view that Watson and Rayner’s conditioning procedure was largely ineffective, and that the relatively weak signs of distress that Albert does display in the film can be readily accounted for by such factors as sensitization and maturational influences. We suggest that the tendency for viewers to perceive the film as a valid demonstration of fear conditioning is likely the result of expectancy effects as well as, in some cases, an ongoing mistrust of behaviorism as dehumanizing and manipulative. Our analysis also revealed certain anomalies in the film which indicate that Watson engaged in some “literary license” when editing it, most likely with a view toward using the film mainly as a promotional device to attract financial support for his research program.


“Psychology: Early print uses of the term by Pier Nicola Castellani (1525) and Gerhard Synellius (1525).” Janssen, Diederik F.; Hubbard, Thomas K. Abstract:

We identify the putatively earliest extant print source of the neoclassical term psychologia, long presumed to have been a 1575 work, as two 1525 works, one by Pier Nicola Castellani and another by Gerhard Synellius. We provide a history of pertinent etymology and introduce the new sources. The full paragraph containing two uses of the term by Castellani is included in translation.

Book Review

“A useful and reliable guide to Wundt’s entire work.” Araujo, Saulo de Freitas. Abstract:

Reviews the book, ‘Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920): Introduction, Quotations, Reception, Commentaries, Attempts at Reconstruction’ by Jochen Fahrenberg (2020). Dr. Jochen Fahrenberg—Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Freiburg in Germany—has done great service to Wundt. In his new book, he offers for the first time an overview of Wundt’s entire work, including the three main areas of neurophysiology, psychology, and philosophy. The book is divided in six chapters. The first one displays the author’s objectives and explains his approach to Wundt’s work. In the second, Fahrenberg offers a short but very useful biography, including Wundt’s curriculum vitae, his teaching and research activities, his political and religious attitudes, and a chronological Table with biographical data. The third chapter is the central part of Fahrenberg’s project, comprising about two-thirds of the whole book. The fourth chapter deals with the reception of Wundt’s work, being the most detailed study of its kind so far. In the fifth chapter, instead of presenting Wundt’s ideas in isolation, Fahrenberg tries to reconstruct them in systematic terms, focusing on Wundt’s principles and his theory of apperception. In the few pages of the last chapter, Fahrenberg addresses Wundt’s current relevance. The merits of Fahrenberg’s book are difficult to overlook. It is the first of its kind to be published in English and will certainly help many readers to orient themselves in the thick forest of Wundt’s writings; it is a useful and reliable guide to Wundt’s entire work, a pleasant invitation to his complex ideas.