New Issue of Memorandum: Memory & History in Psychology

A new issue of the open access journal Memorandum: Memory & History in Psychology (Memorandum: Memória e História em Psicologia) is now online.  Included in this issue are six articles in Portugese and one in English. Full titles, authors, and abstracts – in both Portugese and English, where provided – follow below.

“Editorial,” by Miguel Mahfoud and Marina Massimi. No abstract provided.

“Extra! Brazilian psychology in the news in 62: brief time, lasting meanings,” by Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo, Thais de Souza Sottili, Carla Estefanía Albert and Luciana Oliveira de Jesus. The abstract reads,

O artigo busca compreender práticas psicológicas no ano da regulamentação da psicologia no Brasil. A pesquisa se baseia em matérias sobre as relações políticas, o comportamento cotidiano e a divulgação científica do jornal Correio do Povo. A coleta ocorreu no Museu de Comunicação Hipólito José da Costa, em Porto Alegre onde foi feita a seleção e fotografia de materiais referentes à psicologia. Posteriormente, foi criado um banco de dados para análise temática e discussão do material. Dentre os resultados sobressaíram-se algumas estratégias voltadas para a legitimação da área como a inserção na mídia impressa com a divulgação de cursos, pesquisas, debates e aconselhamentos. Foram evidentes as correspondências entre as práticas psicológicas explicitadas no Jornal e o contexto sócio político da época pautado pela ênfase no desenvolvimento econômico e tecnológico, pela evitação de conflitos e pela crença de que a ciência psicológica poderia promover a humanização das relações.

This research paper aims to understand the psychological practices in 1962, the year of formalization of Psychology in Brazil. The research is based on contents about political relations, behavior and science popularization in the newspaper “Correio do Povo”. Data were collected at Hipólito José da Costa Museum of Communication in Porto Alegre where all material related to psychology was selected and photographed. Afterwards, a database for analysis and material discussion was created. Among the results, some strategies oriented to the field’s legitimation stood out, as the insertion in the print media with the promotion of courses, researches, debates and advices. There was an evident correspondence between the psychological practices explained in the newspaper and the socio-political context guided by the economical and technological development emphasis, by the conflict avoidance and by the belief in the psychological science as a promoter of humanization in relationships.

“Promises of life in times of threat: women, music and resistance during the military dictatorship in Brazil,” by Ingrid Faria Gianordoli-Nascimento, Sara Angélica Teixeira da Cruz Silva, Jaíza Pollyanna Dias da Cruz, Flaviane da Costa Oliveira, Flávia Gotelip Corrêa Veloso and Laís Di Bella Castro Rabelo. The abstract reads,

Esta investigação apresenta a temática da ditadura militar brasileira (1964-1985), focalizando as experiências de prisão e tortura de ex-presas políticas durante o regime, integrando um conjunto mais amplo de pesquisas que exploram o tema neste período histórico específico. A pesquisa proposta parte do relato de cinco entrevistadas, privilegiando trechos que elucidam o papel da música na trajetória de resistência das militantes. Por meio de análise de conteúdo das informações, revelaram-se as seguintes categorias: a música como arte e militância; estratégia de integridade física, psicológica e moral; coesão grupal e expressão de afeto. A discussão temática é perpassada por elementos conceituais do campo de análise da memória psicossocial e da teoria de identidade social. Os resultados apontaram a importância que as atividades culturais tiveram como veículo de crítica e resistência ao autoritarismo, tornando-se importante modo de enfrentamento da experiência de prisão e tortura.

This investigation presents the theme of the Brazilian military dictatorship (1964-1985), focusing on the experiences of prison and torture undergone by ex-female political prisoners during the time of such regime, and also encompassing a wider body of research that explores the theme at this particular historical period. From the accounts given by five interviewees, there has been made a clipping that privileged fragments that portray the role of music in this activist women’s journey of resistance. By analyzing the content of the pieces of information, the following categories have stood out: music as a form of art and militancy; as a strategy to preserve physical, psychological and group integrity; as an expression of affection and group cohesiveness. The thematic discussion is colored by conceptual elements from the field that analyzes psychosocial memory and the social identity theory. The results have pointed to the importance of cultural activities as an approach to critical opposition and resistance to authoritarianism, and to the fact that they became an important way of facing the experiences of prison and torture.

“Pratt and Rorschach: a fenomenological approach,” by Marta Helena de Freitas. The abstract reads,

Este ensaio estabelece algumas comparações aproximativas entre as concepções do filósofo americano James B. Pratt (1875-1944) e do psiquiatra suíço Herman Rorschach (1884-1922), a partir de uma leitura fenomenológica inspirada nas contribuições de Husserl e Merleau-Ponty. Tal leitura retoma, principalmente, os conceitos “fundo de sentimento vital”, em Pratt, e “tipo de vivência”, em Rorschach, e seus respectivos fundamentos teórico-filosóficos e os coloca em diálogo com outros conceitos de autores de sua época, em especial de Freud e Jung. Tomando-se como fio condutor as relações entre o fundo irrefletido e a atividade reflexiva que caracterizam a existência humana, conclui-se que tanto Pratt como Rorschachbuscaram reenviar, por meio de seus conceitos e instrumentos, e cada um a seu modo, às contínuas transformações e às diferentes modalidades de realizações da intencionalidade psíquica.

This essay provides some estimated comparisons between the conceptions from the American philosopher James B. Pratt (1875-1944) and from the Swiss psychiatrist Herman Rorschach (1884-1922), based on the phenomenological approach from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty. The main focus of these comparisons are the concepts of the “vital feeling background”, by Pratt, and the “experience type”, by Rorschach, along with their theoretical and philosophical principles, which are put in connection with the concepts from other authors of their time, especially Freud and Jung. In these connections, the main thread of discussion is the relationship between the unreflective background and the reflective activity that characterize human existence. The conclusion is that both Pratt and Rorschach attempted to resubmit, through their concepts and instruments, and each one in their own way, to the continuous changes and the different modalities of achievement of the psychic intentionality.

“The relationship with the other in Sartre,” by Reinaldo Furlan. The abstract reads,

O objetivo é explorar os sentidos da relação com o outro na filosofia de Sartre (O Ser e o Nada). Em primeiro lugar destacamos as noções de ser-em-si, ser-para-si e ser-para-ooutro, noções chaves para a compreensão dos fundamentos da relação com o outro em sua filosofia. A seguir, destacamos o desejo e o amor nas formas concretas de relação com o outro. Por fim, encerramos com o levantamento de duas ideias, uma referente à atualidade de sua temática, através do pensamento de Foucault, e a outra problematizando a sua noção de encarnação, através do pensamento de Merleau-Ponty.

The aim is to explore the meanings of the relationship with the other in the philosophy of Sartre (Being and Nothingness). First of all we highlighted the notions of being-in-itself, being-for-itself and being-for-the-other, key notions for understanding the fundamentals of the relationship with the other in Sartre’s philosophy. After that, we highlighted desire and love in the concrete way of relationship with the other. Finally, we finished by raising two ideas, one referring to the relevance of the theme at the present time through Foucault’s thought, and the other discussing the notion of incarnation through MerleauPonty’s thought.

“‘Place of the imaginary of seeing’: dialogues based on Lacan’s mirror,” by Danilo Saretta Verissimo. The abstract reads,

A concepção lacaniana do estádio do espelho é perpassada por uma rica malha de diálogos teóricos. Em meio a esta rede se esboça uma ideia de sujeito. O presente trabalho é destinado ao exame dessa ideia, não no interior da obra de Lacan, e sim no âmbito do quadro de referências teóricas relacionado ao tema em apreço. Interessa-nos situar determinados aspectos metodológicos e antropológicos do estádio do espelho em relação a teorias que lhe servem de mediação. Nossos apontamentos voltam-se para três autores: Wallon, Sartre e Merleau-Ponty. O primeiro já em 1931 sublinhava a importância da experiência da criança diante do espelho para o estudo da psicogênese. O segundo é considerado como representante de uma filosofia do Cogito e, portanto, parece figurar como contra-referência para o psicanalista. O terceiro estabeleceu com Lacan uma relação de diálogo mútuo que reforça o caráter heurístico das confrontações entre a psicanálise e a fenomenologia.

Lacan’s conception of the mirror stage involves a rich network of theoretical dialogues. Amidst this network, an idea of subject is drawn. The aim of this paper is to examine that idea, not inside Lacan’s work, but in the theoretical framework related to the theme under analysis. We are interested in situating certain methodological and anthropological aspects of the mirror stage in relation to its mediating theories. Our observations are focused on three authors: Wallon, Sartre and Merleau-Ponty. As early as in 1931, the first underlined the importance of the child’s experience in front of the mirror to study his/her psychogenesis. The second is considered a representative of a Cogito philosophy and, therefore, seems to serve as a counter-reference for the psychoanalyst. The third established a relation of mutual dialogue with Lacan, reinforcing the heuristic nature of confrontations between psychoanalysis and phenomenology.

“For a history of the historical psychology,” by Maria Fernanda Costa Waeny. The abstract reads,

Psicologia histórica é um termo estreitamente relacionado aos historiadores dos Annales, onde muitas vezes foi comparado a outras denominações. Este artigo recupera aspectos históricos do termo psicologia histórica no ambiente dos Annales; em seguida apresenta as primeiras menções à psicologia histórica de que se tem conhecimento até o momento, mostrando que desde 1833 o termo tem sido ininterruptamente mencionado por vários autores e de diferentes maneiras; o uso do termo por autores como Quevedo y Zubieta, Circé-Côté, Sforza, Fletcher, Van den Berg, Barbu, Schneider, Pelckmans, por sua vez, demonstra que seu uso ultrapassa o ambiente dos Annales e que a história da psicologia histórica não se restringe ao ambiente francês. Isto tem ocorrido porque historiadores, historiadores da psicologia e pesquisadores da psicologia histórica de Ignace Meyerson não consideraram a própria historicidade da psicologia histórica em suas pesquisas.

Historical psychology is a term closely linked to the historians of Annales, where it was frequently compared to other names. This article retrieves historical aspects of the term historical psychology in the environment of Annales; after that it presents the first references to historical psychology which are known so far, showing that since 1833 the term has been continuously mentioned by several authors and in different ways; the use of the term by authors like Quevedo y Zubieta, Circé-Côté, Sforza, Fletcher, Van den Berg, Barbu, Schneider, Pelckmans, in turn demonstrates that their use goes beyond the Annales environment and that the history of historical psychology is not restricted to French environment. This has occurred because historians, historians of psychology and researchers of Ignace Meyerson’s historical psychology did not consider the own historicity of the historical psychology in their researches.

“From multiculturalism to interculturality: Through the relational reason,” by Pierpaolo Donati. The abstract reads,

Multiculturalism is a term which was spread in the West during the 1960s to indicate respect, tolerance and defence of cultural minorities. The idea of multiculturalism has become a collective imaginary (“all different, all equals”). It has generated a political ideology supporting an inclusive citizenship towards “different” cultures. After being adopted as official policy in many Countries, multiculturalism has generated more negative than positive effects (fragmenting the society, separating the minorities and creating public cultural relativism). As a political doctrine, it seems harder and harder to be put into practice. At its place, today we talk of interculturality. But this expression also seems quite vague and uncertain. This essay discusses the possible alternatives to multiculturalism, asking itself whether the way of interculturality can be a solution or not. The Author’s thesis is that the theory of interculturality has the advantage to stress the inter, namely what lies in between different cultures. But it does not possess yet the conceptual and effective means to understand and handle the problems of the public sphere, when the different cultures express radical cultural values that bring about conflict between them. The troubles of interculturality result from the lack of two things: an insufficient reflexitivity inside the single cultures, and the lack of a relational interface between the different cultures (between the carrier subjects). Modern western Reason created a societal structure (lib-lab) promoting neither the first nor the second one. In fact, it neutralizes them, because it faces the dilemmas of values inside the cultural diversities through criteria of ethical indifference. Such criteria set reflexitivity to zero, preventing individuals from understanding the deepest reasons of the vital experience of the others. Reason is emptied of its meaning and of its understanding capability. To go over the failures of multiculturalism and the frailties of interculturality, a lay approach to the coexistence of cultures is required, being able to give strength back to Reason, through new semantics of the inter-human diversity. The Author suggests the development of the “relational reason”, beyond the forms already known of rationality. To make Reason relational might be the best way to imagine a new social order of society, being able to humanize the globalizing processes and the growing migrations. The after-modern society will be more or less human depending on how it will be able to widen the human Reason, structuring it inside a new “relational unit” with the religious faith.

“Review: Coleção Sesquicentenária Montes Claros 150 anos,” by Marina Massimi. No abstract provided.

Share on Facebook

About Jacy Young

Jacy Young recently completed a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Surrey in the UK. She earned her doctorate in the History and Theory of Psychology at York University in 2014.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *